The modern software project manager is constantly pursuing three paramount things: speed, quality and timelines. And while the Agile framework has made things easy on this front, it's still critical to make the right choice of methodology even when working within the Agile ecosystem. DSDM is one of the popular Agile methodologies that software development companies or product teams within organizations consider when preparing to work on a new product/solution. This methodology originated in the 1990s when project managers utilizing the RAD (Rapid Application Development) technique wanted more organization and structure. It has since grown to enjoy massive use in modern software project management.
In this article, we’ve dug into our rich insights gathered over a decade of working in the software development space to help you gain a understanding of DSDM. Let’s go!
What is the Dynamic Systems Development Method?
The Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) is a framework that emphasizes speed, collaboration and communication between the various stakeholders in a project. DSDM utilizes the Agile methodology, using an iterative process to ensure all changes meet the expectations of the customers. DSDM provides teams with the necessary tools to complete projects faster and more efficiently. Its user- centered principles help teams to identify goals and problems quickly and develop solutions accordingly.
DSDM encourages teams to work together as a cohesive unit, aiming to accomplish a mutual purpose as they progress step-by-step from one stage to the other when each step produces adequate value.
The aim of the DSDM approach, as an Agile method, is to support project managers in leading their teams dynamically, adjusting to the project's specific needs as well as being responsive to any unforeseen alterations that may occur. To achieve this, there are 8 guiding principles.
1. Focus on the business need
The first principle focuses on needs and necessitates that teams work together to develop solutions that are in agreement with the overarching business goals. In short, this principle highlights how important it is to focus on customer requirements.
The goal is to bridge the gap between technology and business, so that companies can develop products that provide value to customers. The emphasis to focus on business needs first enables teams to create more effective solutions and minimize time spent on unnecessary tasks.
2. Deliver on time
One of DSDM's primary objectives is to realize benefits quickly; hence, timely delivery is essential. This principle encourages teams to deliver projects in perfect time and to the customer's specifications.
This principle helps teams to create successful software development outcomes and reduce costs associated with an extended project. Teams will also be able to identify potential problems early on, so that they can solve them quickly or avoid them altogether.
It is of the utmost importance for DSDM teams to involve all relevant players, and allow for mutual opportunities to give feedback and make decisions together.
The collaboration principle also promotes cross-functional teams, giving those with diverse backgrounds and abilities the chance to work together towards a shared goal.
4. Maintain high quality
Teams should work towards delivering software products that are of a high quality. This means thoroughly testing all components of the software and fixing bugs before delivering the final product.
This principle also emphasizes the importance of continuous improvement and focuses on finding ways to improve existing processes or creating new ones. The DSDM team should establish explicit quality benchmarks prior to starting their work, and frequently assess their progress to guarantee they are abiding by these standards.
5. Build incrementally from firm foundations
This principle encourages teams to start by building a strong base and then incrementally adding new features. This means using proven technology to create a firm foundation upon which incremental additions can be built.
By following this principle, teams can avoid premature design optimizations while continually improving on existing components. To get this principle right, the DSDM teams need to work diligently to make sure the amount and timing of their work is in line with their plans.
6. Develop iteratively
Teams are encouraged to build, test, and refine the software in a cyclical process by using short, iterative builds. This means breaking up large tasks into smaller manageable chunks that can be repeatedly tested and improved upon throughout the course of development.
By following this principle, teams can incorporate customer feedback quickly, make timely changes and release features on time. Additionally, iterative development helps teams to reduce risk by swiftly acting upon feedback.
7. Communicate continuously and clearly
Everyone should be on the same page when it comes to objectives, requirements, and timelines. For example, all stakeholders should be involved in decision-making and kept updated about project progress. Clear and frequent communication helps establish trust between team members and allows them to work through problems in a cohesive manner.
DSDM teams can take advantage of a variety of tools in order to effectively communicate with members involved in the project. These include email, instant messaging, project management software, teleconferencing and video conferencing services. Such tools also allow for quick resolution of issues that arise during project execution.
8. Demonstrate control
Teams should have rigorous change control, configuration management, and version control practices in place to ensure that the project remains on track.
The team leader should foster transparency to guarantee that everyone on the team is kept in the loop regarding any alterations, plans, progress, updates, and objectives.
DSDM life cycle: the key phases
The DSDM life cycle mirrors the larger agile application life cycle and consists of five distinct phases: Feasibility Study, Business Study, Design and Build, and Implementation.
This is the most important step as it’s here that a decision is made on whether a project should move forward or not. The feasibility phase involves assessing potential risks, gathering user requirements, and evaluating the resources needed before determining if a solution should be pursued. It’s all about determining if the proposed solution is feasible — does it meet their business objectives? Will it meet the goals within the budget, timeline and technology available?
Teams must consider all aspects of the project to ensure that it can be successfully completed. It’s also critical to perform risk analysis in this phase, to help teams identify and mitigate any potential issues that could arise during development.
2. Business study
This involves researching the user needs and gathering all the necessary information. The outcome of this stage provides valuable insight into resources needed.
Ensure that the project aligns with the overall objectives of the organization or client. Compare it to similar projects in the industry and add items that are in line with the business goals.
3. Functional model iteration
This phase involves building prototypes based on the specifications determined in the initial phases. These prototypes should be tested and evaluated to make sure they function properly and include all necessary features.
DSDM teams can keep repeating this process until they acquire an effective prototype which will become the basis for the final product.
4. Design and build iteration
By now we have an acceptable prototype. It's time for polishing. So polish the prototype for optimum performance. You can also develop additional elements to reinforce the product even further, or address emerging issues. Quality assurance testing is important here, to make sure that all users will be able to enjoy the full benefits of the final product.
This phase provides the reassurance that the product is functioning correctly and consistently with its intended purpose. This phase can save companies from significant financial losses due to costly errors along with reputational damage as it is here that the critical question of whether the product will succeed or fail to perform to user expectations.
Time to deploy the solution and train users. During this phase, the DSDM teams might need to make some changes to guarantee the solution works well with existing systems. A thorough testing and debugging process must also be done to ensure accuracy and dependability. Additionally, preparation activities like user support and documentation must not be ignored before going live with the product.
At the end of this phase, you will understand if the product is complete or if there are new hurdles. Depending on the feedback, you might have to go back to a prior phase to make adjustments.
DSDM implementation: the key steps
Follow these steps when implementing DSDM in your projects:
1. Determine the overall project objective
This means defining the end goal of the project, outlining all functional and non-functional requirements including any constraints, and breaking down tasks into manageable, achievable objectives.
Once everyone grasps the main objective, it's simpler to keep each team member concentrated on the primary target and responsible for their own specific inputs.
2. Assign roles
Each role requires a team member who has the relevant authority, experience and technical knowledge.
These are the core DSDM roles you ought to assign:
- Executive sponsor: Responsible for ensuring that the project's goals align with the organization's mission, with the full authority to manage the resources and approve all final results.
- Team leader: Responsible for overseeing the development team, utilizing their interpersonal abilities to keep productivity high by ensuring everyone works together harmoniously.
- Solution developer: Designs and develops products according to customer requirements and good engineering principles
- Solution tester: Assess how well completed projects match requirements.
- Project manager: In charge of day-to-day operations and risk management, including tracking progress and making sure everyone stays on the same page.
- Visionary: Provides overall direction throughout the project's duration, including initiating the project and overseeing the team's work
- Ambassador user: Serves as an advocate for users and customer satisfaction, ensuring the development team has plenty of client feedback.
- Adviser user: Ensures customer requirements are understood by offering technical advice
- Technical coordinator: Oversees the technology and creates tools to ensure the project's success from a technical perspective. They are also responsible for quality assurance and development standards
- Scribe: Keeps records of project decisions and actions taken
- Facilitator: Oversees the project proceedings while fostering communication and organization. Can also assist with problem resolution
- Specialist roles: Can vary depending on the team requirements. For example trackers can help with reviewing data related to product functionality, system integrators provide the link between the newly developed solution and existing systems
Also Read: Best practices for Agile implementation
3. Determine the deadline
Establish a realistic timeline for when the project is expected to be completed. This ensures that all team members are working towards the same goals in a consistent and organized fashion.
Evaluate existing resources and plan for any additional resources needed to complete the project on time.
4. Choose preferred core techniques
There are a number of techniques that DSDM teams can utilize. Chief among these are MoSCoW, Modeling, Prototyping, Time-boxing, and Workshops. Here is a brief look at some of these techniques:
- MoSCoW categorizes tasks according to their importance, labeling them as «must-haves,» «should-haves,» «could-haves,» or «won't-haves» depending on their necessity."
- Prototyping allows project teams to quickly get their ideas into a tangible version of the solution/product so they can rapidly test products based on feedback and iterate efficiently.
- Time-boxing divides the project into smaller segments, each with their own timetable and budget constraints. Be sure to prioritize the most important portions to guarantee success while being economical with resources.
- Workshops provide an opportunity for everyone involved to meet and discuss their progress as well as any potential problems. These gatherings generally encourage open communication and a collaborative atmosphere.
5. Satisfy the critical success factors
There are four factors that must be addressed for DSDM projects to be considered successful, and they include:
- User input: Ensure that all stakeholders have input in the development process and have unrestricted opportunity to offer helpful feedback throughout the project.
- Endorsement: Earn the endorsement of senior management so they invest in the DSDM methodology.
- Collaboration: Foster a supportive and collaborative relationship between the vendor (developers) and customers (users).
- Competency: Build a team of qualified professionals who are able to work effectively together, and provide them with the necessary autonomy plus instruments to meet the objectives of the project .
Pros of DSDM
DSDM has plenty of pros to vouch for its effectiveness and efficiency, the top being;
- Speed-to-market: DSDM emphasizes rapid development, allowing businesses to quickly bring their products or services to market.
- Customer satisfaction: Clients are actively involved in the development process. They can constantly review progress and offer feedback, thus having a more satisfactory outcome due to higher control of their needs.
- Motivation: The collaborative nature of DSDM provides an opportunity for teams to work cohesively, where everyone is recognized and appreciated for their individual input. This leads to increased satisfaction in the workplace which motivates all stakeholders, helping prevent misunderstandings that could cause delays or errors during the project timeline.
- Receptive to change: With its iterative nature, DSDM is ready to adapt to changes in requirements and evolving situations, allowing teams to stay flexible and respond quickly when needed.
- Risk mitigation: DSDM facilitates risk mitigation by breaking down large tasks into smaller increments which can be individually evaluated and tested before deployment.
- Continuous improvement: DSDM promotes an atmosphere of continuous improvement, as teams are encouraged to review their processes on a regular basis in order to ensure the highest level of quality.
Drawbacks of DSDM
Like any other methodology, DSDM does come with some drawbacks that can't be ignored. They include:
- Burn-out: Because of the fast-paced nature of the DSDM methodology, team members can end up feeling burned out due to tight deadlines and workloads.
- Documentation: It can be difficult to accurately document all the processes involved in development due to the fast-paced nature of the methodology.
- Scope creep: Due to the iterative nature of the method, there is an increased risk of scope creep. This means that projects can potentially grow beyond their original intended scope.
- Resources: DSDM requires a large amount of resources in order to maintain its pace and produce results quickly. Teams need to be well resourced in both knowledge and personnel prior to undertaking this approach.
The greatest advantage of the DSDM framework lies in treating the development process as a project, not just a product or solution. It assigns the same level of importance to all parts including the technology and stakeholders: users and their needs, developers, managers, business owners etc. That's why, for example, it has such a comprehensive list of roles to assign before beginning a project, and its life cycle contains critical phases such as feasibility and business study.
DSDM is the ideal choice for projects that have a lot of factors at play, a strict timeline, a fixed budget and of course uncompromising on quality.